Faculty Directory


Lim Teik Thye

Associate Dean (Faculty Recruitment and Development)

Professor of Environmental Engineering
Office: N1-01b-47
Tel: (65) 6790-6933
Email: cttlim@ntu.edu.sg
Personal homepage: https://personal.ntu.edu.sg/cttlim


  • B.Eng, University of Malaya, Malaysia, 1992
  • M.Eng (Geo-environmental Eng.), Nanyang Technological University, 1995
  • PhD. (Environmental Eng.), Nanyang Technological University, 1998

Current appointments

  • Chairman, School’s Academic Auditing Committee
  • Cluster leader, NEWRI – Environmental Chemistry & Materials Centre
  • Cluster leader, NEWRI - Residues & Resource Reclamation Centre

Career details

  • Professor, Nanyang Technological University, 2019 – present
  • Associate professor, Nanyang Technological University, 2008 – 2019
  • Assistant professor, Nanyang Technological University, 2000 – 2008
  • Design engineer, BBR (S) Pte Ltd, Singapore, 1997 – 1999
  • Research/teaching assistant, Nanyang Technological University, 1992 – 1997

Professional memberships

  • Member, International Water Association (IWA)
  • Member, American Chemical Society (ACS)

  • Physico-chemical technologies for water and wastewater treatment
  • Environmental nanomaterials for water/air decontamination
  • Environmental catalysis
  • Waste-to-resources (energy and materials)

  • Enterprise Singapore Merit Award 2018 for contributions to the Singapore Standardisation Programme.
  • PhD co-advisor to the winner (Loo Siew Leng) of American Water Works Association's First Place 2017 Academic Achievement Award for the best Doctoral Dissertation.
  • Award for Best Paper 2013 (Environmental Technology) for the journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2014.
  • Award for Top Cited Papers published in 2010 and 2011 (Applied Catalysis B Environmental, Elsevier), 2013.
  • Best Poster Award (poster presented by PhD student) at The International Conference of Engineering with Membranes 2013: Towards a Sustainable Future, 3rd to 9th September 2013, Saint-Pierre-d'Oleron, France.
  • Award for Top Cited Author 2007 – 2011 (Water Research, Elsevier), 2011.
  • PhD advisor to the winner (Goh K.H.) of the prestigious World Future Foundation PhD Prize in Environmental and Sustainability Research, 2010.
  • Project advisor and honoured as the most inspirational mentor to the recipient (Miss Soh Hui Ching) of the University Scholar Award, 2009.
  • Research Outstanding and Award Recognition award by NTU, 2006.
  • A former MEng student (Goh K.H.) was awarded Singapore Millennium Foundation’s PhD Fellowship for 2005-2009, 2005.
  • NTU-APBF Technology & Engineering Research Program - JC students’ project won 1st prize for Civil & Environmental Engineering, 2001.
  • Top student award for B.Eng (Civl), University of Malaya, 1992.
  • MAICE Annual Award, 1992.
  • University Subject Prize for Civil Engineering, 1992
  • University Book Prize, 1992.
  • University Senior Scholarship, 1990.


  • Stuetz R. and Lim T.T. (2006). Young Researchers 2006. Water and Environmental Management Series No 12, IWA Publishing, UK, 533 pages.

Book Chapters

  • Zhang Y., Lim T.T.* (2018). Chapter 12 Photodegradation of cytostatic drugs in low-pressure UV photoreactor through direct and indirect pathways. In Fate and Effects of Cytostatic Pharmaceuticals in the Environment. Eds. Heath E., Filipič M., Kosjek T., Isidori M. In press. Springer.
  • Han C., Ren B., Nadagouda M.N., Romanos G.E., Falaras P., Lim T.T., Sharma V.K., Johnson N., Fernández-Ibáñez P., Byrne J.A., Choi H., Fagan R., McCormack D.E., Pillai S.C., Zhao C., O’Shea K., and Dionysiou D.D.* (2017). Chapter 5 Nanotechnology Applications. In Nanotechnology Applications in Sustainable Water Technologies, Vol. 2. Ed. Chen D.H., Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 105-143, ISBN 978-1-48221-510-6.
  • Chen Z.* and Lim T.T. (2016). Chapter 4 Nanostructured Catalytic and Adsorbent Materials for Water Remediation. In 50 years of Materials Science in Singapore. Eds. Boey F., Chowdari B.V.R., Venkatraman S.S. World Scientific Publishing Ltd., pp 75-111.
  • Lim T.T.* and Goei R. (2016). Chapter 5 Combined Photocatalysis-Separation Processes for Water Treatment using Hybrid Photocatalytic Membrane Reactors. In Photocatalysis: Applications. Eds. Dionysiou D. D., Li Puma G., J. Ye, Schneider J., Bahnemann D.. Royal Society of Chemistry, pp 130-156.
  • Lim, T.T.* and Yap P.S. (2016). Treatment of RO concentrate for enhanced water recovery from wastewater treatment plant effluent. In Handbook of Environmental Chemistry: Emerging Challenges in Wastewater Reuse: Contaminants, Treatment, Effects. Eds. D. Fatta-Kassinos, D.D. Dionysiou and K. Kümmerer. Springer. 45, pp. 247-268.
  • Lim T.T.*, Tay J.H., and Hung Y.T (2014). Chapter 14 Remediation of contaminated groundwater. In Handbook of Environmental and Waste Management: Vol 2 Land and Groundwater Pollution Control. Eds. Hung Y.T., Wang L.K., Shammas N.K.. World Scientific Publishing Ltd., pp 819-885.
  • Lim T.T.* and Zhu B.W. (2009). Chapter 14: Practical applications of bimetallic nanoiron particles for reductive dehalogenation of haloorganics: prospects and challenges. In Environmental Applications of Nanoscale and Microscale Reactive Metal Particles. Eds. K.M. Carvalho-Knighton and C. L. Geiger, ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1027, American Chemical Society, USA, pp 245-261.
  • Chu J.* and Lim T.T. (2008). Use of sewage sludge and copper slag for land reclamation. Gootechnics of Waste Management and Remediation. Ed: M.L. Khire, A.N. Alshawabkeh, K.R. Reddy. ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 177. pp. 352-359.
  • Feng J. and Lim T.T.* (2006). Dechlorination kinetics of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform with nano-scale Pd/Fe. In Young Researchers 2006, Water and Environmental Management Series No 12. Eds. R. Stuetz and T.T. Lim, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp85-92.

Journal Papers (in SCI journals)


  • Guan C., Jin J.*, Pang S., Ma J., Chen X., Lim T.T.* (2019). Nonradical transformation of sulfamethoxazole by carbon nanotube activated peroxydisulfate: Kinetics, mechanism and product toxicity. Chemical Engineering Journal. In press.
  • Lee W.J., Bao Y.P., Hu X. Lim T.T.* (2019). Hybrid catalytic ozonation-membrane filtration process with CeOx and MnOx impregnated catalytic ceramic membranes for micropollutants degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal. In press.
  • Chanaka Udayanga W.D., Veksha A., Giannis A., Lisak G., Lim T.T.* (2019). Effects of sewage sludge organic and inorganic constituents on the properties of pyrolysis products. Energy Conversion and Management. In press.
  • Teoh F., Veksha A.*, Chia V.W.K., Chanaka Udayanga W.D. Dara K.M., Giannis A., Lim T.T., Lisak G.* (2019). Nickel-based catalysts for steam reforming of naphthalene utilizing gasification slag from municipal solid waste as a support. Fuel 254, 115561. DOI: org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.05.144
  • Zhang Y., Xiao Y.*, Zhang Y., Lim T.T.* (2019). UV direct photolysis of halogenated disinfection byproducts: Experimental study and QSAR modeling. Chemosphere 235, 719-725.
  • Oh W.D.*, Veksha A., Chen X., Adnan R., Lim J.W., Leong K.H., Lim T.T.* (2019). Catalytically active nitrogen-doped porous carbon derived from biowastes for organics removal via peroxymonosulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 374, 947-957.
  • Bao Y., Tay Y.S., Lim T.T.*, Wang R., Webster R.D. Hu X.* (2019). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-induced carbon membrane with in-situ encapsulated cobalt crystal for hybrid peroxymonosulfate oxidation-filtration process: preparation, characterization and performance evaluation. Chemical Engineering Journal 373, 425-436.
  • Bao Y., Lee W.J., Lim T.T.*, Wang R., Hu X.* (2019). Pore-functionalized ceramic membrane with isotropically impregnated cobalt oxide for sulfamethoxazole degradation and membrane fouling elimination: synergistic effect between catalytic oxidation and membrane separation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 254, 37-46.
  • Zhang Y.*, Li M., Xiao Y., Zhong Y., Lim T.T. (2019). Comparison of amoxicillin photodegradation in the UV/H2O2 and UV/persulfate systems: Reaction kinetics, degradation pathways, and antibacterial activity. Chemical Engineering Journal 372, 420-428.
  • Chen X., Duan X., Oh W.D., Zhang P.H., Guan C., Zhu Y.A., Lim T.T.* (2019). Insights into nitrogen and boron-co-doped graphene toward high-performance peroxymonosulfate activation: Maneuverable N-B bonding configurations and oxidation pathways. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 253, 419-432.
  • Chen X. and Lim T.T.* (2019). Highly-efficient peroxymonosulfate activation for sulfacetamide degradation over nitrogen-functionalized graphene: the effect of thermal annealing temperature on reactive functional groups. Chemical Engineering Transactions 73, 145-150.
  • Bao Y., Chen Y., Lim T.T., Wang R., Hu X.* (2019). A novel metal–organic framework (MOF)–mediated interfacial polymerization for direct deposition of polyamide layer on ceramic substrates for nanofiltration. Advanced Materials Interfaces 6(9), 1900132. DOI: 10.1002/admi.201900132
  • Chan W.P.*, Veksha A., Lei X., Oh W.D., Dou X., Giannis A., Lisak G., Lim T.T.* (2019). A hot syngas purification system integrated with downdraft gasification of municipal solid waste. Applied Energy 237, 227-240.
  • Dou X., Veksha A.*, Chan W.P., Oh W.D., Liang Y.N., Teoh F., Dara K., Giannis A., Lisak G., Lim T.T.* (2019). Poisoning effects of H2S and HCl on the naphthalene steam reforming and water-gas shift activities of Ni and Fe catalysts. Fuel 241, 1008-1018.
  • Oh W.D.*, Chang V.W.C., Lim T.T.* (2019). A comprehensive performance evaluation of heterogeneous Bi2Fe4O9/peroxymonosulfate system for sulfamethoxazole degradation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26, 1026-1035.
  • Chan W.P.*, Veksha A.*, Lei X., Oh W.D., Dou X., Giannis A., Lisak G., Lim T.T.* (2019). A novel real-time monitoring and control system for waste-to-energy gasification process employing differential temperature profiling of a downdraft gasifier. Journal of Environmental Management 234, 65-74.
  • Bao Y., Oh W.D., Lim T.T.*, Wang R., Webster R.D., Hu X.* (2019). Elucidation of stoichiometric efficiency, radical generation and transformation pathway during catalytically oxidation of sulfamethoxazole via peroxymonosulfate activation. Water Research 151, 64-74.
  • Veksha A.*, Giannis A., Yuan G., Tng J., Chan W.P., Chang V.W.C., Lisak G., Lim T.T.* (2019). Distribution and modeling of tar compounds produced during downdraft gasification of municipal solid waste. Renewable Energy 136, 1294-1303.
  • Chanaka Udayanga W.D., Veksha A., Giannis A., Lim T.T.* (2019). Pyrolysis derived char from municipal and industrial sludge: impact of organic decomposition and inorganic accumulation on the fuel characteristics of char. Waste Management 83, 131-141.
  • Oh W.D.*, Lim T.T.* (2019). Design and application of heterogeneous catalysts as peroxydisulfate activator for organics removal: An overview. Chemical Engineering Journal 358, 110-133.


  • Chen X., Oh W.D., Lim T.T.* (2018). Graphene- and CNTs-based carbocatalysts in persulfates activation: material design and catalytic mechanisms. Chemical Engineering Journal 354, 941-976.
  • Wu M.*, Shi L., Lim T.T., Veksha A., Yu F., Fan H., Mi J.* (2018). Ordered mesoporous Zn-based supported sorbent synthesized by a new method for high-efficiency desulfurization of hot coal gas. Chemical Engineering Journal 353, 273-287.
  • Bao Y., Oh W.D., Lim T.T.*, Wang R., Webster R.W., Hu X.* (2018). Surface-nucleated heterogeneous growth of zeolitic imidazolate framework-A unique precursor towards catalytic ceramic membranes: synthesis, characterization and organics degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal 353, 69-79.
  • Oh W.D.*, Lei J., Veksha A., Giannis A., Chan W.P., Lisak G., Lim T.T.* (2018). Ni-Zn-based nanocomposite loaded on cordierite-mullite honeycomb for syngas desulfurization: Performance evaluation and regeneration studies. Chemical Engineering Journal 351, 230-239.
  • Wu M.*, Chang B., Lim T.T., Oh W.D., Lei J., Mi J.* (2018). High-sulfur capacity and regenerable Zn-based sorbents derived from layered double hydroxide for hot coal gas desulfurization. Journal of Hazardous Materials 360, 391-401.
  • Oh W.D.*, Lisak G., Liang Y.N., Veksha A., Moo J.G.S., Giannis A., Lim J.W., Lim T.T.* (2018). Insights into the thermolytic transformation of lignocellulosic biomass waste to redox-active carbocatalyst: Durability of surface active sites. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 233, 120-129.
  • Chanaka Udayanga W.D., Veksha A., Giannis A., Lisak G., Chang V.W.C., Lim T.T.* (2018). Fate and distribution of heavy metals during thermal processing of sewage sludge. Fuel 226, 721–744.
  • Bao Y., Lim T.T., Goei R., Zhong Z., Wang R., Hu X.* (2018). One-step construction of heterostructured metal-organics@Bi2O3 with improved photoinduced charge transfer and enhanced activity in photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole under solar light irradiation. Chemosphere 205, 396-403.
  • Hu Z.-T.*, Liang Y.N., Zhao J., Zhang Y., Yang E.-H., Chen J., Lim T.T.* (2018). Ultra-effective integrated technologies for water disinfection with a novel 0D-2D-3D nanostructured rGO-AgNP/Bi2Fe4O9 composite. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 227, 548-556.
  • Bao Y., Lim T.T., Wang R., Webster R.D., Hu X.* (2018). Urea-assisted one-step synthesis of cobalt ferrite impregnated ceramic membrane for sulfamethoxazole degradation via peroxymonosulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 343, 737-747.
  • Chen X., Oh W.D., Hu Z.T., Sun Y.M., Webster R.D., Li S.Z., Lim T.T.* (2018). Enhancing sulfacetamide degradation by peroxymonosulfate activation with N-doped graphene produced through delicately-controlled nitrogen functionalization via tweaking thermal annealing processes. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 225, 243–257.
  • Veksha A.*, Giannis A., Oh W.D., Chang V.W.C., Lisak G., Lim T.T.* (2018). Catalytic activities and resistance to HCl poisoning of Ni-based catalysts during steam reforming of naphthalene. Applied Catalysis A: General 557, 25-38.
  • Oh W.D.*, Lok L.W., Veksha A., Giannis A., Lim T.T.* (2018). Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A with Ag-decorated S-doped g-C3N4 under solar irradiation: Performance and mechanistic studies. Chemical Engineering Journal 333, 739-749.
  • Chaturabong P.*, Lim T.T., Wong Y.D. (2018). Effective surface treatment techniques for refinishing oil-stained road surface. Construction & Building Materials 159, 64-72.
  • Hu Z.T.*, Oh W.D., Liu Y., Yang E.H., Lim T.T.* (2018). Controllable mullite bismuth ferrite micro/nanostructures with multifarious catalytic activities for switchable/hybrid catalytic degradation processes. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 509, 502-514.
  • Oh W.D.*, Lei J., Veksha A., Giannis A., Lisak G., Chang V.W.C., Hu X., Lim T.T. * (2018). Influence of surface morphology on the performance of nanostructured ZnO-loaded ceramic honeycomb for syngas desulfurization. Fuel 211C, 591-599.


  • Bao Y., Lim T.T., Zhong Z., Wang R., Hu X.* (2017). Acetic acid-assisted fabrication of hierarchical flower-like Bi2O3 for photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and rhodamine B under solar irradiation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 505(1) 489-499.
  • Chen B., Bi H., Ma Q. Tan C., Cheng H., Chen Y., He X., Sun L., Lim T.T., Huang L., Zhang H.* (2017). Preparation of graphene-MoS2 hybrid aerogels as multifunctional sorbents for water remediation. Science China Materials 60(11), 1102-1108.
  • Nie L, Liu G., Xie J., Lim T.T., Armatas G.S., Xu R., Zhang Q.* (2017). Syntheses, crystal structures, and photocatalytic properties of two ammonium-directed Ag−Sb−S complexes. Inorganic Chemistry Frontier 4, 954-959.
  • Oh W.D., Dong Z., Goei R., Lim T.T.* (2017). Surface-active bismuth ferrite as superior peroxymonosulfate activator for aqueous sulfamethoxazole removal: Performance, mechanism and quantification of sulfate radical. Journal of Hazardous Materials 325, 71-81.
  • Zhang Y., Zhang J., Xiao Y., Chang V.W.C., Lim T.T.* (2017). Direct and indirect photodegradation pathways of cytostatic drugs under UV germicidal irradiation: process kinetics and influences of water matrix species and oxidant dosing. Journal of Hazardous Materials 324, 481-488.
  • Oh W.D.*, Dong Z., Lim T.T. (2017). Hierarchically-structured Co–CuBi2O4and Cu–CuBi2O4 for sulfanilamide removal via peroxymonosulfate activation. Catalysis Today 280, 2-7.
  • Zhang Y., Xiao Y., Zhang J., Chang V.W.C., Lim T.T.* (2017). Degradation of cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil in water using UV and UV/H2O2: kinetics investigation, pathways and energetic analysis. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 5(1), 1133-1139.
  • Oh W.D.*, Chang V.W.C., Hu Z.T., Goei R., Lim T.T.* (2017). Enhancing the catalytic activity of g-C3N4 through Me doping (Me = Cu, Co and Fe) for selective sulfathiazole degradation via redox-based advanced oxidation process. Chemical Engineering Journal 323, 260-269.
  • Wu W., Huang Z.H., Hu Z.-T., He C., Lim T.T.* (2017). High performance duplex-structured SnO2 anode modified by SnO2-Sb-CNT composite for bisphenol A removal: Electrochemical oxidation enhanced by adsorption. Separation and Purification Technology 179, 25-35.
  • Kishor R., Ma Z., Sreejith S., Seah Y.P., Wang H., Ai Y., Wang Z., Lim T.T., Zheng Y.* (2017). Real time size-dependent particle segregation and detection in a surface acoustic wave-photoacoustic integrated microfluidic system. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 252, 568-576.


  • Kishor R., Ma Z., Sreejith S., Seah Y.P., Wang H., Ai Y., Wang Z., Lim T.T., Zheng Y.* (2017). Real time size-dependent particle segregation and detection in a surface acoustic wave-photoacoustic integrated microfluidic system. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 252, 568-576.
  • Zhang Y., Zhang J., Xiao Y., Chang V.W.C., Lim T.T.* (2016). Kinetic and mechanistic investigation of azathioprine degradation in water by UV, UV/H2O2 and UV/persulfate. Chemical Engineering Journal 302, 526–534.
  • Oh W.D., Dong Z., Lim T.T.* (2016). Generation of sulfate radical through heterogeneous catalysis for organic contaminants removal: Current development, challenges and prospects. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 194, 169–201.
  • Xiao Y., Zhang L., Zhang W., Lim K.Y., Webster R.D., Lim T.T.* (2016). Comparative evaluation of iodoacids removal by UV/persulfate and UV/H2O2 processes. Water Research 102, 629-639.
  • Wu W., Huang Z.H., Lim T.T.* (2016). A comparative study on electrochemical oxidation of bisphenol A by boron-doped diamond anode and modified SnO2-Sb anodes: influencing parameters and reaction pathways. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 4, 2807-2815.
  • Hu Z.T., Chen Z., Goei R., Wu W., Lim T.T.* (2016). Magnetically recyclable Bi/Fe-based hierarchical nanostructures via self-assembly for environmental decontamination. Nanoscale 8, 12736-12746.
  • Oh W.D., Lua S.K., Dong Z., Lim T.T.* (2016). Rational design of hierarchically−structured CuBi2O4 composites by deliberate manipulation of the nucleation and growth kinetics of CuBi2O4 for environmental applications. Nanoscale 8, 2046 – 2054.
  • Loo S.L., Krantz W.B., Hu X., Fane A.G.*, Lim T.T.* (2016). Impact of solution chemistry on the properties and bactericidal activity of silver nanoparticles decorated on superabsorbent cryogels. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 461, 104–113.
  • Nie L., Zhang Y., Xiong W., Lim T.T., Xu R., Yan Q., Zhang Q.* (2016). A surfactant-thermal method to prepare crystalline thioantimonate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers 3 (1), 111-116.
  • Kishor R., Gao F., Sreejith S., Feng X., Seah Y.P., Wang Z., Stuparu M.C., Lim T.T., Chen X., Zheng Y.* (2016). Photoacoustic induced surface acoustic wave sensor for concurrent opto-mechanical microfluidic sensing of dyes and plasmonic nanoparticles. RSC Advances. 6 (55), 50238-50244.


  • Yu S., Liu J., Zhu W., Hu Z., Lim T.T., Yan X.* (2015). Facile room-temperature synthesis of carboxylated graphene oxide-copper sulfide nanocomposite with high photodegradation and disinfection activities under solar light irradiation. Scientific Reports 5, 16369. doi:10.1038/srep16369.
  • Hu Z.T., Lua S.K., Lim T.T.* (2015). Cuboid-like Bi2Fe4O9/Ag with graphene-wrapping tribrid composite with superior capability for environmental decontamination: Nanoscaled material design and visible-light-driven multifunctional catalyst. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 3 (11), pp. 2726-2736.
  • Oh W.D., Dong Z., Hu Z., Lim T.T.* (2015). A novel quasi-cubic CuFe2O4–Fe2O3 prepared at low temperature for enhanced oxidation of bisphenol A via peroxymonosulfate activation. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 3, 22208-22217.
  • Kishor R., Seah Y.P., Zheng Y.*, Xia H.M., Wang Z. F., Lu H. J., Lim T.T. (2015). Characterization of an acoustically coupled multilayered microfluidic platform on SAW substrate using mixing phenomena. Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical 233, 360-367.
  • Chen B., Ma Q., Tan C., Lim T.T., Huang L., Zhang H.* (2015). Carbon-based sorbents with three-dimensional architectures for water remediation. Small 11(27), 3319-3336.
  • Xiao Y., Zhang L., Yue J., Webster R.D., Lim T.T.* (2015). Kinetic modeling and energy efficiency of UV/H2O2 treatment of iodinated trihalomethanes. Water Research 75, 259-269.
  • Oh W.D., Lua S.K., Dong Z., Lim T.T.* (2015). Performance of magnetic activated carbon composite as peroxymonosulfate activator and regenerable adsorbent via sulfate radical-mediated oxidation processes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 284(2), 1-9.
  • Hu Z.T., Liu J., Yan X., Oh W.D., Lim T.T.* (2015). Low-temperature synthesis of graphene/Bi2Fe4O9 composite for synergistic adsorption-photocatalytic degradation of hydrophobic pollutant under solar irradiation. Chemical Engineering Journal 262, 1022–1032.
  • Hu Z.T., Lua S.K., Yan X., Lim T.T.* (2015). Nanostructured hexahedron of bismuth ferrite clusters: delicate synthesis processes and an efficient multiplex catalyst for organic pollutant degradation. RSC Advances 5, 86891–86900.
  • Wu W., Huang Z., Lim T.T.* (2015). Enhanced electrochemical oxidation of phenol using hydrophobic TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb-PTFE electrode prepared by pulse electrodeposition. RSC Advances 5, 32245-32255.
  • Oh W.D., Lua S.K., Dong Z., Lim T.T.* (2015). A novel three-dimensional spherical CuBi2O4 nanocolumn arrays with persulfate and peroxymonosulfate activation functionalities for 1H-benzotriazole removal. Nanoscale 7(17), 8149-8158.
  • Loo S.L., Krantz W.B., Fane A.G., Gao Y., Hu X.*, Lim T.T.* (2015). Effect of synthesis routes on the properties and bactericidal activity of cryogels incorporated with silver nanoparticles. RSC Advances 5(55), 44626-44635.
  • Lua S.K., Oh W.D., Zhang L.Z., Yao L., Lim T.T., Dong Z. (2015). A molybdovanadophosphate-based surfactant encapsulated heteropolyanion with multi-lamellar nano-structure for catalytic wet air oxidation of organic pollutant under ambient conditions. RSC Advances 5 (115), pp. 94743-94751.
  • Loo S.L., Krantz W.B., Fane A.G., Gao Y., Lim T.T.*, Hu X.* (2015). Bactericidal mechanisms revealed for rapid water disinfection by superabsorbent cryogels decorated with silver nanoparticles. Environmental Science & Technology 49(4), 2310-2318.
  • Loo S.L., Lim T.T., Krantz W.B., Fane A.G.*, Hu X. (2015). Potential evaluation and perspectives on using sponge-like superabsorbent cryogels for onsite water treatment in emergencies. Desalination and Water Treatment 53, 1506-1515.


  • Liu X.*, Du H.*, Wang P, Lim T.T., Sun X. (2014). A high-performance UV/visible photodetector of Cu2O/ZnO hybrid nanofilms on SWNTs-based flexible conducting substrates. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2, 9536–9542.
  • Oh W.D., Lua S.K., Dong Z., Lim T.T.* (2014). High surface area DPA-hematite for efficient detoxification of bisphenol A via peroxymonosulfate activation. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2, 15836-15845.
  • Goei R., Lim T.T.* (2014). Ag-decorated TiO2 photocatalytic membrane with hierarchical architecture: photocatalytic and anti-bacterial activities. Water Research 59, 207–218.
  • Wu W., Huang Z., Lim T.T.* (2014). Recent development of mixed metal oxide anodes for electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants in water. Applied Catalysis A: General 480, 58-78.
  • Goei R., Lim T.T.* (2014). Asymmetric TiO2 hybrid photocatalytic ceramic membrane with porosity gradient: Effect of structure directing agent on the resulting membranes architecture and performances. Ceramics International 40, 6747-6757.
  • Song J., Duan B., Wang C., Zhou J., Pu L., Fang Z., Wang P., Lim T.T., Duan H.* (2014). SERS-encoded nanogapped plasmonic nanoparticles: growth of metallic nanoshell by templating redox-active polymer brushes. Journal of American Chemical Society 136 (19), 6838–6841.
  • Xiao Y., Fan R., Zhang L., Yue J., Webster R.D., Lim T.T.* (2014). Photodegradation of iodinated trihalomethanes in aqueous solution by UV 254 irradiation. Water Research 49, 275-285.
  • Hu Z-T, Chen B., Lim T.T.* (2014). Single-crystalline Bi2Fe4O9 synthesized by low-temperature co-precipitation: Performance as photo- and Fenton catalysts. RSC Advances 4, 27820–27829.
  • Zhou T.*, Wu X., Mao J., Zhang Y., Lim T.T.* (2014). Rapid degradation of sulfonamides in a novel heterogeneous sonophotochemical magnetite-catalyzed Fenton-like (US/UV/Fe3O4/Oxalate) system. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 160-161, 325-334.


  • Loo S.L., Fane A.G., Lim T.T.*, Krantz W.B., Liang Y.N., Liu X., Hu X.* (2013). Superabsorbent cryogels decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel water technology for point-of-use disinfection. Environmental Science & Technology 47 (16), 9363-9371.

    • Best paper 2013 of Environmental Science & Technology (Category: Environmental Technology)
    • Featured in Chemical & Engineering News, Issue Aug 26, 2013
    • Featured in Nature, Research Highlight (Vol 502, p145) as “The most viewed papers in science”
  • Fatta-Kassinos D.*, Lee Y.*, Lim T.T.*, Lima E.C.* (2013). Editorial, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 1(1-1), 1.
  • Wang X., Lim T.T.* (2013). Highly efficient and stable Ag-AgBr/TiO2 composites for destruction of E. coli under visible light irradiation. Water Research 47 (12), 4148-4158.
  • Goei R., Dong Z.L., Lim T.T.* (2013). High-permeability Pluronic-based TiO2 hybrid photocatalytic membrane with hierarchical porosity: fabrication, characterizations and performances. Chemical Engineering Journal 228, 1030–1039.
  • Zhou T.*, Wu X., Zhang Y., Li J., Lim T.T.* (2013). Synergistic catalytic degradation of antibiotic sulfamethazine in a heterogeneous sonophotolytic goethite/oxalate Fenton-like system. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 136– 137, 294–301.
  • Wang P., Tang Y., Dong Z., Chen Z., Lim T.T.* (2013). Ag–AgBr/TiO2/RGO nanocomposite for visible–light photocatalytic degradation of penicillin G. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1, 4718–4727.
  • Chen C. P., Wang P. H., Lim T.T., Liu L. H., Liu S. M., Xu R.* (2013). A facile synthesis of monodispersed hierarchical layered double hydroxide on silica spheres for efficient removal of pharmaceuticals from water. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1, 3877–3880.
  • Han Z., Chang V.W.*, Wang X., Lim T.T., Lynn H. (2013). Experimental study on visible-light induced photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous formaldehyde by polyester fiber supported photocatalysts. Chemical Engineering Journal 218, 9-18.
  • Loo S.L., Krantz W.B., Lim T.T., Fane A.G.*, Hu X.* (2013). Design and synthesis of ice-templated PSA cryogels for water purification: Towards tailored morphology and properties. Soft Matter 9(1), 224–234.
  • Wang P., Fane A. G., Lim T.T.* (2013). Evaluation of a submerged membrane vis–LED photoreactor (sMPR) for carbamazepine degradation and TiO2 separation. Chemical Engineering Journal 215-216, 240–251.


  • Wang X., Tang Y., Chen Z., Lim T.T.* (2012). Highly stable heterostructured Ag-AgBr/TiO2 composite: A bifunctional visible-light active photocatalyst for destruction of ibuprofen and bacteria. Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(43), 23149-23158.
  • Hou D.X., Goei R., Wang X., Wang P., Lim T.T.* (2012). Preparation of carbon-sensitized and Fe-Er codoped TiO2 with response surface methodology for bisphenol A photocatalytic degradation under visible-light irradiation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 126, 121-133.
  • Kim H.S., Kim T., Ahn J.Y., Hwang K.Y., Park J.Y., Lim T.T., Hwang I.* (2012). Aging characteristics and reactivity of two types of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (FeBH and FeH2) in nitrate reduction. Chemical Engineering Journal 197, 16–23.
  • Loo S.L., Fane A.G.*, Krantz W.B., Lim T.T.* (2012). Emergency water supply: A review of potential technologies and selection criteria. Water Research 46, 3125-3151.

    • Listed as one of the top 25 hottest Water Research articles in 2012, 2013.
  • Yap P.S., Cheah Y.L., Srinivasan M., Lim T.T.* (2012). Bimodal N-doped P25-TiO2/AC composite: Preparation, characterization, physical stability, and synergistic adsorptive-solar photocatalytic removal of sulfamethazine. Applied Catalysis A: General 427–428, 125-136.
  • Yap P.S., Lim T.T.* (2012). Solar regeneration of powdered activated carbon impregnated with visible-light responsive photocatalyst: factors affecting performances and predictive model. Water Research 46, 3054-3064.
  • Wang P., Lim T.T.* (2012). Membrane vis-LED photoreactor for simultaneous penicillin G degradation and TiO2 separation. Water Research 46(6), 1825-1837.
  • Wang B., Wu H., Yu L. Xu R., Lim T.T., Lou X.W.* (2012). Template-free formation of uniform urchin-like -FeOOH hollow spheres with superior capability for water treatment. Advanced Materials 24(8), 1111-1116.
  • Tang Y., Wee P., Lai Y., Wang X., Gong D., Kanhere P.D., Lim T.T., Dong Z., Chen Z.* (2012). Hierarchical TiO2 Nanoflakes and nanoparticles hybrid structure for improved photocatalytic activity. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116 (4), 2772–2780.
  • Hou D., Feng L., Zhang J., Dong S.*, Zhou D., Lim T.T. (2012). Preparation, characterization and performance of a novel visible light responsive spherical activated carbon-supported and Er3+:YFeO3-doped TiO2 photocatalyst. Journal of Hazardous Materials 199-200, 301-308.


  • Wang X., Tang Y, Leiw M.Y., Lim T.T.* (2011). Solvothermal synthesis of Fe-C codoped TiO2 nanoparticles for visible-light photocatalytic removal of emerging organic contaminants in water. Applied Catalysis A: General 409–410, 257– 266.
  • Wang P., Zhou T., Wang R., Lim T.T.* (2011). Carbon-sensitized and nitrogen-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide under visible-light irradiation. Water Research 45, 5015-5026.
  • Gao B.*, Yap P.S., Lim T.M., Lim T.T.* (2011). Adsorption-photocatalytic degradation of acid red 88 by supported TiO2 : Effect of activated carbon support and aqueous anions. Chemical Engineering Journal 171, 1098-1107.
  • Wang X., Lim T.T.* (2011). Effect of hexamethylenetetramine on the visible-light photocatalytic activity of C-N codoped TiO2 for bisphenol A degradation: evaluation of photocatalytic mechanism and solution toxicity. Applied Catalysis A: General 399, 233-241.
  • Wang P., Yap P.S., Lim T.T.* (2011). C-N-S tridoped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible-light irradiation. Applied Catalysis A: General 399, 252–261.
  • Zhou T.*, Lim T.T.*, Wu X. (2011). Sonophotolytic degradation of azo dye reactive black 5 in a ultrasound/UV/ferric system and the roles of different organic ligands. Water Research 45(9), 2915-2924.
  • Yap P.S., Lim T.T.*, Srinivasan M. (2011). Nitrogen-doped TiO2/AC bi-functional composite prepared by two-stage calcination for enhanced synergistic removal of hydrophobic pollutant using solar irradiation. Catalysis Today 161, 46-52.
  • Zhou T., Lim T.T.*, Chin S.S., Fane A.G. (2011). Treatment of organics in reverse osmosis concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation plant: Feasibility test of advanced oxidation processes with/without pretreatment. Chemical Engineering Journal 166, 932-939.
  • Yap P.S., Lim T.T.* (2011) Effect of aqueous matrix species on synergistic removal of bisphenol-A under solar irradiation using nitrogen-doped TiO2/AC composite. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 101, 709–717.
  • Lim T.T.*, Yap P.S., Srinivasan M., Fane A.G. (2011). TiO2/AC composites for synergistic adsorption-photocatalysis processes: present challenges and further developments for water treatment and reclamation. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 41(13), 1173 - 1230.


  • Zhou T., Li Y., Lim T.T.* (2010). Catalytic hydrodechlorination of chlorophenols by Pd/Fe nanoparticles: Comparisons with other bimetallic systems, kinetics and mechanism. Separation and Purification Technology 76, 206–214.
  • Chua L.H.C.*, Lo E.Y.M., Shuy E.B., Robertson A.P., Lim T.T., Tan S.K. (2010). DOC and UVA attenuation with soil aquifer treatment in the saturated zone of an artificial coastal sandfill. Water Science and Technology 62(3), 491-500.
  • Wang X., Lim T.T.* (2010). Solvothermal synthesis of C-N codoped TiO2 and photocatalytic evaluation for bisphenol A degradation using a visible-light irradiated LED photoreactor. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 100, 355–364.

    • Won Top Cited Papers 2013 award by Applied Catalysis B Environmental.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.* (2010). Influences of co-existing species on the sorption of toxic oxyanions from aqueous solution by nanocrystalline Mg/Al layered double hydroxide. Journal of Hazardous Materials 180, 401-408.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.*, Dong Z.L. (2010). Removal of arsenate from aqueous solution by nanocrystalline Mg/Al layered double hydroxide: sorption characteristics, prospects, and challenges. Water Science and Technology 61(6), 1411-1417.
  • Tang Y., Lai Y., Gong D., Goh K.H., Lim T.T., Dong Z.*, Chen Z.* (2010). Ultrafast synthesis of layered titanate microspherulite particles by electrochemical spark discharge spallation. Chemistry: A European Journal, 16, 7704-7708.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.*, Banas A., Dong Z.L. (2010). Sorption characteristics and mechanisms of oxyanions and oxyhalides having different molecular properties on Mg/Al layered double hydroxide nanoparticles. Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (1-3), 818-827.
  • Yap P.S., Lim T.T.*, Lim M., Srinivasan M. (2010). Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2/AC composite for the adsorption-photocatalytic degradation of aqueous bisphenol-A using solar light. Catalysis Today 151, 8–13.
  • Subagio D.P., Srinivasan M.*, Lim M., Lim T.T.* (2010). Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol-A by nitrogen-doped TiO2 hollow sphere in a vis-LED photoreactor. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 95, 414–422.
  • Gao B.*, Lim T.M., Subagio D.P., Lim T.T.* (2010). Zr-doped TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A. Applied Catalysis A: General 375(1), 107-115.
  • Zhou T.*, Lu X., Lim T.T., Li Y., Wong F.S. (2010). Degradation of chlorophenols (CPs) in an Ultrasound irradiated Fenton like system at ambient circumstance: The QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationship) study. Chemical Engineering Journal 156(2), 347–352.
  • Zhou T.*, Lim T.T.*, Li Y., Lu X., Wong F.S. (2010). The role and fate of EDTA in ultrasound-enhanced zero-valent iron / air system. Chemosphere 78, 576–582.


  • Chua L.H.C.*, Lo E.Y.M., Lim T.T., Robertson A.P., Shuy E.B., Tan S.K. (2009). Geochemical changes during recharge with tertiary-treated wastewater at a coastal sandfill. Water Science and Technology 60(5), 1273-1281.
  • Chua L.H.C.*, Leong M.C.M., Lo E.Y.M., Reinhard M., Robertson A.P., Lim T.T., Shuy E.B., Tan S.K. (2009). Controlled field studies on soil aquifer treatment in a constructed coastal sandfill. Water Science and Technology 60(5), 1283-1293.
  • Qian G.*, Chen W., Lim T.T., Chui P. (2009). In-situ stabilization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni in the multi-contaminated sediments with ferrihydrite and apatite composite additives. Journal of Hazardous Materials 170 (2-3), 1093-1100.
  • Zhou T.*, Lim T.T., Lu X., Li Y., Wong F.S. (2009). Simultaneous degradation of 4CP and EDTA in a heterogeneous Ultrasound/Fenton like system at ambient circumstance. Separation and Purification Technology 68 (3), 367-374.
  • Lim T.T.* Goh K.H., Goei R., Dong Z.L. (2009). Mechanistic and thermodynamic studies of oxyanion sorption by various synthetic Mg/Al layered double hydroxides. Water Science and Technology 59(5), 1011-1017.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.*, Dong Z.L. (2009). Enhanced arsenic removal by hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline Mg/Al layered double hydroxide with nitrate intercalation. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 2537–2543.


  • Feng J., Zhu B.W., Lim T.T.* (2008). Reduction of chlorinated methanes with nano-scale Fe particles: Effects of amphiphiles on the dechlorination reaction and two-parameter regression for kinetic prediction. Chemosphere 73, 1817–1823.
  • Lim T.T.*, Zhu B.W. (2008). Effects of anions on the kinetics and reactivity of nanoscale Pd/Fe in trichlorobenzene dechlorination. Chemosphere 73, 1471–1477.
  • Zhu B.W., Lim T.T.*, Feng J. (2008). Influences of amphiphiles on dechlorination of a trichlorobenzene by nanoscale Pd/Fe: Adsorption, reaction kinetics, and interfacial interactions. Environmental Science & Technology 42, 4513–4519.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.*, Chui P.C. (2008). Evaluation of the effect of dosage, pH and contact time on high-dose phosphate inhibition for copper corrosion control using response surface methodology (RSM). Corrosion Science 50, 918–927.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.*, Dong Z.L. (2008). Application of layered double hydroxides for removal of oxyanions: a review. Water Research 42, 1343 – 1368.

    • Won Top Cited Author 2011 Award (by Water Research).

Before 2008

  • Chua L.H.C.*, Lo E.Y.M., Freyberg D.L., Shuy E.B., Lim T.T., Tan S.K., Mzila N. (2007). Hydrostratigraphy and geochemistry at a coastal sandfill in Singapore. Hydrogeology Journal 15, 1591–1604.
  • Zhu B.W., Lim T.T.* (2007). Catalytic reduction of chlorobenzenes with Pd/Fe nanoparticles: reactive sites, catalyst stability, particle ageing and regeneration. Environmental Science & Technology 41, 7523-7529.
  • Lim T.T.*, Huang X.F. (2007). Evaluation of hydrophobicity/oleophilicity of kapok and its performance in oily water filtration: comparison of raw and solvent-treated fibers. Industrial Crops and Products 26(2), 125–134.
  • Lim T.T.*, Feng J., Zhu B.W. (2007). Kinetic and mechanistic examinations of reductive transformation pathways of brominated methanes with nano-scale Fe and Ni/Fe particles. Water Research 41, 875-883.
  • Feng J., Lim T.T.* (2007). Iron-mediated reduction rates and pathways of halogenated methanes with nanoscale Pd/Fe: Analysis of linear free energy relationship. Chemosphere 66(9), 1765-1774.
  • Lim T.T.*, Huang X.F. (2007). Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup. Chemosphere 66(5), 955-963.
  • Chua L.H.C.*, Robertson A.P., Yee W.K., Shuy E.B., Lo E.Y.M., Lim T.T., Tan S.K. (2007). Use of fluorescein as a ground water tracer in brackish water aquifers. Ground Water 45 (1), 85-88.
  • Zhu B.W., Lim T.T.*, Feng J. (2006). Reductive dechlorination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene with palladized nanoscale Fe0 particles supported on chitosan and silica. Chemosphere, 65(7), 1137-1145.
  • Lim T.T.*, Huang X.F. (2006). In-situ oil/water separation using hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous wall: a lab-scale feasibility study for groundwater cleanup. Journal of Hazardous Materials B137, 820-826.

    • Featured in Technology Innovation News Survey, Technology Innovation and Field Services Division, USEPA, USA.
  • Lim T.T.*, Chu J., Goi M.H. (2006). Effects of cement on redistribution of trace metals and dissolution of organics in sewage sludge and its inorganic waste-amended products. Waste Management 26(11), 1294-1304.
  • Huang X.F., Lim T.T.* (2006). The performance and mechanism of hydrophobic-oleophilic kapok filter for oil/water separation. Desalination 190, 295–307.
  • Lim T.T.*, Chu J. (2006). Assessment on the use of spent copper slag for land reclamation. Waste Management & Research 24, 67-73.
  • Feng J., Lim T.T.* (2005). Pathways and kinetics of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform reductions by nano-scale Fe and Fe/Ni particles: comparison with commercial micro-scale Fe and Zn. Chemosphere 59(9), 1267-1277.
  • Chu J.*, Goi M.H., Lim T.T. (2005). Consolidation of cement treated sewage sludge using vertical drains. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 42(2), 528-540.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.* (2005). Arsenic extractability in a fine soil fraction and influence of various anions on its mobility in subsurface environment. Applied Geochemistry 20(2), 229-239.
  • Lim T.T.*, Chui P.C., Goh K.H. (2005). Process evaluation for optimization of EDTA use and recovery for heavy metal removal from a contaminated soil. Chemosphere 58(8), 1031-1040.
  • Lim T.T.*, Goh K.H. (2005). Selenium extractability from a contaminated fine soil fraction: implication on soil cleanup. Chemosphere 58(1), 91-101.
  • Lim T.T.*, Tay J.H., Tan L.C., Choa V., Teh C.I. (2004). Changes in mobility and speciation of heavy metals in clay-amended incinerator fly ash. Environmental Geology 47(1), 1-10.
  • Goh K.H., Lim T.T.* (2004). Geochemistry of inorganic arsenic and selenium in a tropical soil: effect of reaction time, pH, and competitive anions on arsenic and selenium adsorption. Chemosphere 55(6), 849-859.
  • Lim T.T.*, Tay J.H., Wang J.Y. (2004). Chelating-agent enhanced heavy metal extraction from a contaminated acidic soil. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE 130, 59-66.
  • Lim T.T.*, Chu J., Goi M.H. (2004). Assessment of heavy metals leachability in clay-amended sewage sludge stabilized with cement for use as fill material. Journal of Residuals Science & Technology 1(3), 157-164.
  • Lim T.T.*, Tay J.H., Teh C.I. (2002). Significance of aqueous cation composition on heavy metal mobility in a natural clay. Water Environment Research 74(4). pp. 346-53.
  • Lim T.T.*, Tay J.H., Teh C.I. (2002). Contamination time effect on lead and cadmium fractionation in a tropical coastal clay. Journal of Environmental Quality 31 (3), 806-812.
  • Lim T.T.*, Tay J.H., Teh C.I. (2001). Influence of metal loading on the mode of metal retention in a natural clay. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 127( 6), 539-545.
  • Lim T.T., Tay J.H.*, Teh C.I. (1997). Sorption and speciation of heavy metals from incinerator fly ash in a marine clay. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 123(11), 1107-1115.
  • Lim T.T., Rahardjo H.*, Chang M.F., Fredlund D.G. (1996). Effect of rainfall on matric suctions in a residual soil slope. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 33, 618-628.
  • Rahardjo H.*, Lim T.T., Chang M.F., Fredlund D.G. (1995). Shear strength characteristics of a residual soil in Singapore. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 32, 60-77.